Most scooters utilize 12- or 24-volt motors and electrical systems generally with one or two 12-volt batteries to power the drive train and controls. Twelve-volt systems are most frequently found on front-wheel drive scooters, and usually require one 12-volt battery, although two six-volt batteries are sometime used. Some manufacturers offer add-on units for 12-volt systems which allow them to utilize two batteries to extend the scooter’s range between charges, although speed and power are not affected. Rear-wheel drive systems generally require two twelve-volt batteries to power 24-volt systems.
These batteries are “deep cycle” batteries intended for wheelchairs and scooters and generally last between 12 and 18 months, although with conservation and regular charging, longer life may be achieved. Deep cycle batteries are designed to provide a steady supply of power and be discharged and recharged on a regular basis. Automotive and marine batteries, on the other hand, are designed to be starter batteries, providing short bursts of power only. Consequently, marine and automotive batteries should never be substituted for deep cycle batteries.
There are three basic types available for use with scooters: Lead acid (or wet cell) batteries, sealed lead-acid batteries, and gel cell batteries. Lead acid batteries are the least expensive of the three types, but they also require the most maintenance. In addition to regular charging, electrolyte and water levels must be checked regularly, with water added frequently to maintain appropriate levels. Because these batteries are not sealed, there is danger of acid spillage and explosion if the batteries are not handled properly. Despite these potential problems, lead-acid batteries provide the benefits of a two- to six-month longer battery life and up to a ten percent greater running time than other battery types. Sealed lead acid batteries are maintenance-free versions of these batteries. Because they are sealed in cases, it is unnecessary to add water and the danger of acid spillage is reduced or eliminated. The cases are vented to prevent gas build-up that can lead to an explosion. Finally, gel cell batteries are the most commonly used battery type on scooters. They are sealed in their cases and require no maintenance other than regular charging. Gel cells are the safest of the battery types, with no danger of spillage and limited risk of explosion. However, gel cells are more expensive, and may have a somewhat shorter life than other battery types.